The Importance Of Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology studies the reaction of materials, devices and functional systems through the control of matter at a miniscule scale (nanoscale), so that a system can be designed so small that it is not perceived by the human senses.
The manipulation of matter on such a small scale presents phenomena and properties that have nothing to do with the reaction that would occur under real conditions. On the other hand, it allows scientists to create novel and inexpensive materials, apparatus and systems with very particular properties.
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Two Types Of Nanotechnology
- Top-down or downsizing. It deals with the miniaturization of structures on a nanometric scale and is the most used today. One of its applications in the field of electronics allows to miniaturize electronic components.
- Bottom-up, self-assembly or molecular nanotechnology. Starting from a nanometric structure, an assembly process begins that allows creating a larger mechanism.
- Some scientists think that it is the Second Industrial Revolution since its results in the short term will allow us to achieve.
- New materials, lighter, stronger and cheaper. The practical applications already available are cosmetics, paints. Smaller electronic components. Higher performance solar energy, computers with greater autonomy thanks to the use of hydrogen energy. New industrial products, new music equipment, household appliances, telephony, construction, security and defense improved medicine, cancer treatments, dental care.
Use In Lighting
- In lighting, it is used to improve the efficiency of LEDs. By passing electrons through nano semiconductors known as “quantum dots”, an emission of light is achieved that has potential applications in biology, medicine, computing or lighting, among others. Companies like Nanosys are using remote phosphor nano semiconductors to develop LEDs that turn blue light into warmer white light.
- Global investment in nanotechnology is estimated at more than $ 50 billion with more than the majority coming from the private sector.
- In terms of geographic distribution, the United States, China, Japan, France and Germany top the list of investments and publications. In Latin America, the largest investments are registered in Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, although Cuba has created the Center for Advanced Studies (CEAC) with the aim of becoming leaders in health and biotechnology services by 2020.
Necessary Joint Work
- Countries that dominate this technology will have a clear advantage over their competitors. It is necessary that governments, companies and research centers work together supported by solid policies that promote research, financing and cooperation with other countries, with the academic and university sectors fully involved.
- The new European Union Research and Innovation program, Horizon 2020 , which will last for seven years (2014-2020), provides a clear line of action and support in this regard.